Orientation and Attitude
These two terms, orientation and attitude, defined in Jung's Volume VI: Psychological Types, are
important for understanding how types tend to collaborate or oppose one
another in the psychic conflict that induces individuation.
An attitude is a "readiness to act," as Jung defined it, and applies to both directional attitudes and functional attitudes.
We might refer to Jung's eight "types" as a composite attitudes
consisting of a directional attitude joined to a functional attitude.
Introverted thinking, for example, consists of both an introverted
attitude and the functional attitude of thinking.
Orientation refers to what governs an attitude's readiness to act. Each of the functional attitudes is governed by a principle. Thinking, for example, is governed by logic.
Each of the directional attitudes is governed by an orientation to the world without or the world within.
Combining a functional orientation with a directional orientation produces a composite orientation.
Thinking, governed by logic, when joined to an introverted orientation
to the world within, transforms logic in a way that makes it quite
different from extraverted thinking.
Understanding the composite orientations and attitudes
is essential for understanding Jung's eight types. That understanding
sheds light on how the types tend collaborate or oppose one another.
The types support and oppose one another on the psychic stage in a dynamic interplay that is the stuff of individuation.
Author of Jung's Compass of Psychological Types: